VXLAN Networks

This guide describes how to enable Network isolation provided through the VXLAN encapsulation protocol. This driver will create a bridge for each OpenNebula Virtual Network and attach a VXLAN tagged network interface to the bridge.

The VLAN id will be the same for every interface in a given network, calculated automatically by OpenNebula. It may also be forced by specifying an VLAN_ID parameter in the Virtual Network template.

Additionally each VLAN has associated a multicast address to encapsulate L2 broadcast and multicast traffic. This address is assigned by default to the range as defined by RFC 2365 (Administratively Scoped IP Multicast). In particular the multicast address is obtained by adding the VLAN_ID to the base address.

Considerations & Limitations

This driver works with the default UDP server port 8472.

VXLAN traffic is forwarded to a physical device, this device can be set (optionally) to be a VLAN tagged interface, but in that case you must make sure that the tagged interface is manually created first in all the hosts.

The physical device that will act as the physical device must have an IP.

Concurrent VXLANs host limit

Each VXLAN is associated with one multicast group. There is a limit on how many multicast groups can be a physical host member of at the same time. That also means, how many different VXLANs can be used on a physical host concurrently. The default value is 20 and can be changed via sysctl through kernel runtime parameter net.ipv4.igmp_max_memberships.

For permanent change to e.g. 150, place following settings inside the /etc/sysctl.conf:


and reload the configuration

sudo sysctl -p

OpenNebula Configuration

It is possible specify the start VLAN ID by configuring /etc/one/oned.conf:

# VXLAN_IDS: Automatic VXLAN Network ID (VNI) assigment. This is used
# for vxlan networks.
#     start: First VNI to use

    START = "2"

The following configuration attributes can be adjusted in /var/lib/one/remotes/etc/vnm/OpenNebulaNetwork.conf:

Parameter Description
vxlan_mc Base multicast address for each VLAN. The multicas sddress is vxlan_mc + vlan_id
vxlan_ttl Time To Live (TTL) should be > 1 in routed multicast networks (IGMP)
validate_vlan_id Set to true to check that no other vlans are connected to the bridge
keep_empty_bridge Set to true to preserve bridges with no virtual interfaces left.
bridge_conf Hash Options for brctl
ip_link_conf Hash Arguments passed to ip link add


# These options will execute brctl commands with these values. For example,
# this option will execute:
#     brctl stp <bridge name> on
    :stp: on

# These options will be added to the ip link add command. For example:
#     sudo ip link add lxcbr0.260  type vxlan id 260 group \
#       ttl 16 dev lxcbr0 udp6zerocsumrx  tos 3
    :tos: 3

Defining a VXLAN Network

To create a VXLAN network include the following information:

Attribute Value Mandatory
VN_MAD vxlan YES
PHYDEV Name of the physical network device that will be attached to the bridge. YES
BRIDGE Name of the linux bridge, defaults to onebr<net_id> or onebr.<vlan_id> NO
VLAN_ID The VLAN ID, will be generated if not defined NO
MTU The MTU for the tagged interface and bridge NO

The following example defines a VXLAN network

NAME    = "vxlan_net"
VN_MAD  = "vxlan"
PHYDEV  = "eth0"
VLAN_ID = 50        # optional
BRIDGE  = "vxlan50" # optional

In this scenario, the driver will check for the existence of the vxlan50 bridge. If it doesn’t exist it will be created. eth0 will be tagged (eth0.50) and attached to vxlan50 (unless it’s already attached). Note that eth0 can be a 802.1Q tagged interface if you want to isolate the OpenNebula VXLAN traffic.


By default VXLAN relies on multicast to discover tunnel endpoints, alternatively you can use MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane and hence increase the scalability of your network. This section describes the main configuration steps to deploy such setup.

Configuring the Hypervisors

The hypervisor needs to run a BGP EVPN capable routing software like FFRouting (FRR). Its main purpose is to send BGP updates with the MAC address and IP (optional) for each VXLAN tunnel endpoint (i.e. the VM interfaces in the VXLAN network) running in the host. The updates needs to be distributed to all other hypervisors in the cloud to achieve full route reachability. This second step is usually performed by one or more BGP route reflectors.

As an example, consider two hypervisors and, and a route reflector at The FRR configuration file for the hypervisors could be (to announce all VXLAN networks):

router bgp 7675
 bgp router-id
 no bgp default ipv4-unicast
 neighbor remote-as 7675
 neighbor  capability extended-nexthop
 address-family l2vpn evpn
  neighbor activate

And the reflector for our AS 7675, and hypervisors in

router bgp 7675
  bgp router-id
  bgp cluster-id
  no bgp default ipv4-unicast
  neighbor kvm_hosts peer-group
  neighbor kvm_hosts remote-as 7675
  neighbor kvm_hosts capability extended-nexthop
  neighbor kvm_hosts update-source
  bgp listen range peer-group kvm_hosts
  address-family l2vpn evpn
   neighbor fabric activate
   neighbor fabric route-reflector-client

Note that this a simple scenario using the same configuration for all the VNIs. Once the routing software is configure you should see the updates in each hypervisor for the VMs running in it, for example: show bgp evpn route
   Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
Route Distinguisher:
*> [2]:[0]:[0]:[48]:[02:00:0a:03:03:c9]
                                    32768 i
*> [3]:[0]:[32]:[]
                                    32768 i
Route Distinguisher:
                         0    100      0 i
                         0    100      0 i

Configuring OpenNebula

You need to update /var/lib/one/remotes/vnm/OpenNebulaNetwork.conf file to:

  1. Set BGP EVPN as the control plane for your BUM traffic, vxlan_mode.
  2. Select the hypervisor is going to send the traffic to the VTEP. This can be either dev, to forward the traffic through the PHY_DEV interface defined in the Virtual Network template, or local_ip to route the traffic using the first IP configured in PHY_DEV.
  3. Finally you may want to add the nolearning option to the VXLAN link.
# Multicast protocol for multi destination BUM traffic. Options:
#   - multicast, for IP multicast
#   - evpn, for BGP EVPN control plane
:vxlan_mode: evpn

# Tunnel endpoint communication type. Only for evpn vxlan_mode.
#   - dev, tunnel endpoint communication is sent to PHYDEV
#   - local_ip, first ip addr of PHYDEV is used as address for the communiation
:vxlan_tep: local_ip

# Additional ip link options, uncomment the following to disable learning for
# EVPN mode

After updating the configuration file do not forget to run onehost sync -f to distribute the changes.