Managing Virtual Machines Instances¶
This guide follows the Creating Virtual Machines guide. Once a Template is instantiated to a Virtual Machine, there are a number of operations that can be performed using the
Virtual Machine Life-cycle¶
The life-cycle of a Virtual Machine within OpenNebula includes the following stages:
Note that this is a simplified version. If you are a developer you may want to take a look at the complete diagram referenced in the Virtual Machines States Reference guide):
||By default a VM starts in the pending state, waiting for a resource to run on. It will stay in this state until the scheduler decides to deploy it, or the user deploys it using the
||The owner has held the VM and it will not be scheduled until it is released. It can be, however, deployed manually.|
||The VM is waiting for one or more disk images to finish the initial copy to the repository (image state still in
||The system is transferring the VM files (disk images and the recovery file) to the host in which the virtual machine will be running.|
||OpenNebula is waiting for the hypervisor to create the VM.|
||The VM is running (note that this stage includes the internal virtualized machine booting and shutting down phases). In this state, the virtualization driver will periodically monitor it.|
||The VM is migrating from one resource to another. This can be a life migration or cold migration (the VM is saved, powered-off or powered-off hard and VM files are transferred to the new resource).|
||A disk attach/detach, nic attach/detach operation is in process.|
||A system snapshot is being taken.|
||The system is saving the VM files after a migration, stop or suspend operation.|
||In this phase the system cleans up the Host used to virtualize the VM, and additionally disk images to be saved are copied back to the system datastore.|
||OpenNebula has sent the VM the shutdown ACPI signal, and is waiting for it to complete the shutdown process. If after a timeout period the VM does not disappear, OpenNebula will assume that the guest OS ignored the ACPI signal and the VM state will be changed to running, instead of done.|
||The VM is stopped. VM state has been saved and it has been transferred back along with the disk images to the system datastore.|
||Same as stopped, but the files are left in the host to later resume the VM there (i.e. there is no need to re-schedule the VM).|
Same as suspended, but no checkpoint file is generated. Note that the files are left in the host to later boot the VM there.
When the VM guest is shutdown, OpenNebula will put the VM in this state.
||The VM is shut down. The VM disks are transfered to the system datastore. The VM can be resumed later.|
||The VM failed.|
||The VM couldn’t be reached, it is in an unknown state.|
||The VM is waiting for the drivers to clean the host after a
||The VM is done. VMs in this state won’t be shown with
Managing Virtual Machines¶
The following sections show the basics of the
onevm command with simple usage examples. A complete reference for these commands can be found here.
Create and List Existing VMs¶
Read the Creating Virtual Machines guide for more information on how to manage and instantiate VM Templates.
Read the complete reference for Virtual Machine templates.
Assuming we have a VM Template registered called vm-example with ID 6, then we can instantiate the VM issuing a:
onetemplate list ID USER GROUP NAME REGTIME 6 oneadmin oneadmin vm_example 09/28 06:44:07 onetemplate instantiate vm-example --name my_vm VM ID: 0
If the template has USER INPUTS defined the CLI will prompt the user for these values:
onetemplate instantiate vm-example --name my_vm There are some parameters that require user input. * (BLOG_TITLE) Blog Title: <my_title> * (DB_PASSWORD) Database Password: VM ID: 0
Afterwards, the VM can be listed with the
onevm list command. You can also use the
onevm top command to list VMs continuously.
onevm list ID USER GROUP NAME STAT CPU MEM HOSTNAME TIME 0 oneadmin oneadmin my_vm pend 0 0K 00 00:00:03
After a Scheduling cycle, the VM will be automatically deployed. But the deployment can also be forced by oneadmin using
onehost list ID NAME RVM TCPU FCPU ACPU TMEM FMEM AMEM STAT 2 testbed 0 800 800 800 16G 16G 16G on onevm deploy 0 2 onevm list ID USER GROUP NAME STAT CPU MEM HOSTNAME TIME 0 oneadmin oneadmin my_vm runn 0 0K testbed 00 00:02:40
and details about it can be obtained with
onevm show 0 VIRTUAL MACHINE 0 INFORMATION ID : 0 NAME : my_vm USER : oneadmin GROUP : oneadmin STATE : ACTIVE LCM_STATE : RUNNING START TIME : 04/14 09:00:24 END TIME : - DEPLOY ID: : one-0 PERMISSIONS OWNER : um- GROUP : --- OTHER : --- VIRTUAL MACHINE MONITORING NET_TX : 13.05 NET_RX : 0 USED MEMORY : 512 USED CPU : 0 VIRTUAL MACHINE TEMPLATE ... VIRTUAL MACHINE HISTORY SEQ HOSTNAME REASON START TIME PTIME 0 testbed none 09/28 06:48:18 00 00:07:23 00 00:00:00
Searching VM Instances...¶
You can search for VM instances by using the
--search option of the
onevm list command. This is specially usefull on large environments with many VMs. The filter must be in a KEY=VALUE format and will return all the VMs which fit the filter.
The KEY must be in the VM template section or be one of the following:
For example, for searching a VM with a specific MAC addres:
onevm list --search MAC=02:00:0c:00:4c:dd ID USER GROUP NAME STAT UCPU UMEM HOST TIME 21005 oneadmin oneadmin test-vm pend 0 0K 1d 23h11
Equivalently if there are more than one VM instance that matches the result they will be shown. for example, VMs with a given NAME:
onevm list --search NAME=test-vm ID USER GROUP NAME STAT UCPU UMEM HOST TIME 21005 oneadmin oneadmin test-vm pend 0 0K 1d 23h13 2100 oneadmin oneadmin test-vm pend 0 0K 12d 17h59
This feature is only available for MySQL backend with a version higher or equal than 5.6.
Terminating VM Instances...¶
You can terminate an instance with the
onevm terminate command, from any state. It will shutdown (if needed) and delete the VM. This operation will free the resources (images, networks, etc) used by the VM.
If the instance is running, there is a
--hard option that has the following meaning:
terminate: Gracefully shuts down and deletes a running VM, sending the ACPI signal. Once the VM is shutdown the host is cleaned, and persistent and deferred-snapshot disk will be moved to the associated datastore. If after a given time the VM is still running (e.g. guest ignoring ACPI signals), OpenNebula will returned the VM to the
terminate --hard: Same as above but the VM is immediately destroyed. Use this action instead of
terminatewhen the VM doesn’t have ACPI support.
Pausing VM Instances...¶
There are two different ways to temporarily stop the execution of a VM: short and long term pauses. A short term pause keeps all the VM resources allocated to the hosts so its resume its operation in the same hosts quickly. Use the following
onevm commands or Sunstone actions:
suspend: the VM state is saved in the running Host. When a suspended VM is resumed, it is immediately deployed in the same Host by restoring its saved state.
poweroff: Gracefully powers off a running VM by sending the ACPI signal. It is similar to suspend but without saving the VM state. When the VM is resumed it will boot immediately in the same Host.
poweroff --hard: Same as above but the VM is immediately powered off. Use this action when the VM doesn’t have ACPI support.
When the guest is shutdown from within the VM, OpenNebula will put the VM in the
You can also plan a long term pause. The Host resources used by the VM are freed and the Host is cleaned. Any needed disk is saved in the system datastore. The following actions are useful if you want to preserve network and storage allocations (e.g. IPs, persistent disk images):
undeploy: Gracefully shuts down a running VM, sending the ACPI signal. The Virtual Machine disks are transferred back to the system datastore. When an undeployed VM is resumed, it is be moved to the pending state, and the scheduler will choose where to re-deploy it.
undeploy --hard: Same as above but the running VM is immediately destroyed.
stop: Same as
undeploybut also the VM state is saved to later resume it.
When the VM is successfully paused you can resume its execution with:
resume: Resumes the execution of VMs in the stopped, suspended, undeployed and poweroff states.
Rebooting VM Instances...¶
Use the following commands to reboot a VM:
reboot: Gracefully reboots a running VM, sending the ACPI signal.
reboot --hard: Performs a ‘hard’ reboot.
Delaying VM Instances...¶
The deployment of a PENDING VM (e.g. after creating or resuming it) can be delayed with:
hold: Sets the VM to hold state. The scheduler will not deploy VMs in the
holdstate. Please note that VMs can be created directly on hold, using ‘onetemplate instantiate –hold’ or ‘onevm create –hold’.
Then you can resume it with:
release: Releases a VM from hold state, setting it to pending. Note that you can automatically release a VM by scheduling the operation as explained below
There are two kinds of operations related to disk snapshots:
disk-snapshot-rename: Allows the user to take snapshots of the disk states and return to them during the VM life-cycle. It is also possible to rename or delete snapshots.
disk-saveas: Exports VM disk (or a previously created snapshot) to an image. This is a live action.
Disk Snapshots are not supported in vCenter
Managing Disk Snapshots¶
A user can take snapshots of the disk states at any moment in time (if the VM is in
SUSPENDED states). These snapshots are organized in a tree-like structure, meaning that every snapshot has a parent, except for the first snapshot whose parent is
-1. At any given time a user can revert the disk state to a previously taken snapshot. The active snapshot, the one the user has last reverted to, or taken, will act as the parent of the next snapshot. In addition, it’s possible to delete snapshots that are not active and that have no children.
The default behavior described previously can be overridden by the storage driver; and it may allow a flat snapshot structure without parent/child relationship. In that case, snapshots can be freely removed.
disk-snapshot-create <vmid> <diskid> <name>: Creates a new snapshot of the specified disk.
disk-snapshot-revert <vmid> <diskid> <snapshot_id>: Reverts to the specified snapshot. The snapshots are immutable, therefore the user can revert to the same snapshot as many times as he wants, the disk will return always to the state of the snapshot at the time it was taken.
disk-snapshot-delete <vmid> <diskid> <snapshot_id>: Deletes a snapshot if it has no children and is not active.
disk-snapshot-create can take place when the VM is in
RUNNING state, provided that the drivers support it, while
disk-snapshot-revert requires the VM to be
SUSPENDED. Live snapshots are only supported for some drivers:
TM_MAD=qcow2datastores. In this case OpenNebula will request that the hypervisor executes
VM_MAD=kvmwith Ceph datastores (
TM_MAD=ceph). In this case OpenNebula will initially create the snapshots as Ceph snapshots in the current volume.
With CEPH and qcow2 datastores and KVM hypervisor you can enable QEMU Guest Agent. With this agent enabled the filesystem will be frozen while the snapshot is being done.
OpenNebula will not automatically handle non-live
disk-snapshot-revert operations for VMs in
RUNNING if the drivers do not support it. In this case the user needs to suspend or poweroff the VM before creating the snapshot.
See the Storage Driver guide for a reference on the driver actions invoked to perform live and non-live snapshost.
Persistent Image Snapshots¶
These actions are available for both persistent and non-persistent images. In the case of persistent images the snapshots will be preserved upon VM termination and will be able to be used by other VMs using that image. See the snapshots section in the Images guide for more information.
The snapshot operations are implemented differently depending on the storage back-end:
|Operation/TM_MAD||Ceph||Shared and SSH||Qcow2||Dev, FS_LVM, LVM|
|Snap Create||Creates a protected snapshot||Copies the file.||Creates a new qcow2 image with the previous disk as the backing file.||Not Supported|
|Snap Create (live)||Creates a protected snapshot and quiesces the guest fs.||Not Supported||(For KVM only) Launches
|Snap Revert||Overwrites the active disk by creating a new snapshot of an existing protected snapshot||Overwrites the file with a previously copied one.||Creates a new qcow2 image with the selected snapshot as the backing file.||Not Supported|
|Snap Delete||Deletes a protected snapshot||Deletes the file.||Deletes the selected qcow2 snapshot.||Not Supported|
Depending on the
DISK/CACHE attribute the live snapshot may or may not work correctly. To be sure, you can use
CACHE=writethrough, although this delivers the slowest performance.
Exporting Disk Images with
Any VM disk can be exported to a new image (if the VM is in
SUSPENDED states). This is a live operation that happens immediately. This operation accepts
--snapshot <snapshot_id> as an optional argument, which specifies a disk snapshot to use as the source of the clone, instead of the current disk state (value by default).
This action is not in sync with the hypervisor. If the VM is in
RUNNING state make sure the disk is unmounted (preferred), synced or quiesced in some way or another before taking the snapshot.
In vCenter, the save as operation can only be performed when the VM is in POWEROFF state. Performing this action in a different state won’t work as vCenter cannot unlock the VMDK file.
New disks can be hot-plugged to running VMs with the
disk-detach commands. For example, to attach to a running VM the Image named storage:
onevm disk-attach one-5 --image storage
To detach a disk from a running VM, find the disk ID of the Image you want to detach using the
onevm show command, and then simply execute
onevm detach vm_id disk_id:
onevm show one-5 ... DISK=[ DISK_ID="1", ... ] ... onevm disk-detach one-5 1
You can hot-plug network interfaces to VMs in the
SUSPENDED states. Simply specify the network where the new interface should be attached to, for example:
onevm show 2 VIRTUAL MACHINE 2 INFORMATION ID : 2 NAME : centos-server STATE : ACTIVE LCM_STATE : RUNNING ... VM NICS ID NETWORK VLAN BRIDGE IP MAC 0 net_172 no vbr0 172.16.0.201 02:00:ac:10:0 ... onevm nic-attach 2 --network net_172
After the operation you should see two NICs, 0 and 1:
onevm show 2 VIRTUAL MACHINE 2 INFORMATION ID : 2 NAME : centos-server STATE : ACTIVE LCM_STATE : RUNNING ... VM NICS ID NETWORK VLAN BRIDGE IP MAC 0 net_172 no vbr0 172.16.0.201 02:00:ac:10:00:c9 fe80::400:acff:fe10:c9 1 net_172 no vbr0 172.16.0.202 02:00:ac:10:00:ca fe80::400:acff:fe10:ca ...
You can also detach a NIC by its ID. If you want to detach interface 1 (MAC
onevm nic-detach 2 1
You can create, delete and restore snapshots for running VMs. A snapshot will contain the current disks and memory state.
onevm snapshot-create 4 "just in case" onevm show 4 ... SNAPSHOTS ID TIME NAME HYPERVISOR_ID 0 02/21 16:05 just in case onesnap-0 onevm snapshot-revert 4 0 --verbose VM 4: snapshot reverted
For KVM only. Please take into consideration the following limitations:
- The snapshots are lost if any life-cycle operation is performed, e.g. a suspend, migrate, delete request.
- Snapshots are only available if all the VM disks use the qcow2 driver.
Resizing VM Capacity¶
You may resize the capacity assigned to a Virtual Machine in terms of the virtual CPUs, memory and CPU allocated. VM resizing can be done in any of the following states: POWEROFF, UNDEPLOYED.
If you have created a Virtual Machine and you need more resources, the following procedure is recommended:
- Perform any operation needed to prepare your Virtual Machine for shutting down, e.g. you may want to manually stop some services
- Poweroff the Virtual Machine
- Resize the VM
- Resume the Virtual Machine using the new capacity
Note that using this procedure the VM will preserve any resource assigned by OpenNebula, such as IP leases.
The following is an example of the previous procedure from the command line:
onevm poweroff web_vm onevm resize web_vm --memory 2G --vcpu 2 onevm resume web_vm
Resizing VM Disks¶
If the disks assigned to a Virtual Machine need more size, this can achieved at instantiation time of the VM. The SIZE parameter of the disk can be adjusted and, if it is bigger than the original size of the image, OpenNebula will:
- Increase the size of the disk container prior to launching the VM
- Using the contextualization packages, at boot time the VM will grow the filesystem to adjust to the new size. This is only available for Linux guests in KVM and vCenter.
This can be done with an extra file given to the
cat /tmp/disk.txt DISK = [ IMAGE_ID = 4, SIZE = 2000] # If Image 4 is 1 GB, OpenNebula will resize it to 2 GB onetemplate instantiate 7 /tmp/disk.txt
Or with CLI options:
onetemplate instantiate <template> --disk image0:size=20000
This can also be achieved from Sunstone, both in Cloud and Admin View, at the time of instantiating a VM Template:
In vCenter a disk can be resized only if the VM is in poweroff state and the VM has no snapshots or the template, which the VM is based on, doesn’t use linked clones.
Updating VM Configuration¶
Some of the VM configuration attributes defined in the VM Template can be updated after the VM is created. The
onevm updateconf command will allow you to change the following attributes:
||Any value. Variable substitution will be made|
Visit the Virtual Machine Template reference for a complete description of each attribute
If the VM is running, the action may fail and the context will not be changed. You can try to manualy trigger the action again.
Changes on GRAPHIC will still require the VM to be restarted despite being updatable.
In Sunstone this action is inside the ‘Conf’ VM panel:
Cloning a VM¶
A VM Template or VM instance can be copied to a new VM Template. This copy will preserve the changes made to the VM disks after the instance is terminated. The template is private, and will only be listed to the owner user.
There are two ways to create a persistent private copy of a VM:
- Instantiate a template ‘to persistent’
- Save a existing VM instance with
Instantiate to persistent¶
When instantiating to persistent the Template is cloned recursively (a private persistent clone of each disk Image is created), and that new Template is instantiated.
To “instantiate to persistent” use the
onetemplate instantiate web_vm --persistent --name my_vm VM ID: 31 onetemplate list ID USER GROUP NAME REGTIME 7 oneadmin oneadmin web_vm 05/12 14:53:11 8 oneadmin oneadmin my_vm 05/12 14:53:38 oneimage list ID USER GROUP NAME DATASTORE SIZE TYPE PER STAT RVMS 7 oneadmin oneadmin web-img default 200M OS Yes used 1 8 oneadmin oneadmin my_vm-disk-0 default 200M OS Yes used 1
In sunstone, activate the “Persistent” switch next to the create button:
Please bear in mind the following
ontemplate instantiate --persistent limitation:
- Volatile disks cannot be persistent, and the contents will be lost when the VM is terminated. The cloned VM Template will contain the definition for an empty volatile disk.
Save a VM Instance¶
Alternatively, a VM that was not created as persistent can be saved before it is destroyed. To do so, the user has to
poweroff the VM first and then use the
This action clones the VM source Template, replacing the disks with snapshots of the current disks (see the disk-snapshot action). If the VM instance was resized, the current capacity is also used. The new cloned Images can be made persistent with the
--persistent option. NIC interfaces are also overwritten with the ones from the VM instance, to preserve any attach/detach action.
onevm save web_vm copy_of_web_vm --persistent Template ID: 26
In the Cloud View:
From the Admin View:
Please bear in mind the following
onevm save limitations:
- The VM’s source Template will be used. If this Template was updated since the VM was instantiated, the new contents will be used.
- Volatile disks cannot be saved, and the current contents will be lost. The cloned VM Template will contain the definition for an empty volatile disk.
- Disks and NICs will only contain the target Image/Network ID. If your Template requires extra configuration (such as DISK/DEV_PREFIX), you will need to update the new Template.
We have two types of schedule actions, punctual and relative actions. Punctual actions can also be periodic.
One-Time Punctual Actions¶
Most of the onevm commands accept the
--schedule option, allowing users to delay the actions until the given date and time.
Here is an usage example:
onevm suspend 0 --schedule "09/20" VM 0: suspend scheduled at 2016-09-20 00:00:00 +0200 onevm resume 0 --schedule "09/23 14:15" VM 0: resume scheduled at 2016-09-23 14:15:00 +0200 onevm show 0 VIRTUAL MACHINE 0 INFORMATION ID : 0 NAME : one-0 [...] SCHEDULED ACTIONS ID ACTION SCHEDULED REP END DONE MESSAGE 0 suspend 09/20 00:00 - 1 resume 09/23 14:15 -
These actions can be deleted or edited using the
onevm update command. The time attributes use Unix time internally.
onevm update 0 SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="suspend", ID="0", TIME="1379628000" ] SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="resume", ID="1", TIME="1379938500" ]
Periodic Punctual Actions¶
To schedule periodic actions also use the option –schedule. However this command also needs more options to define the periodicity of the action.
--weekly: defines a weekly periodicity, so, the action will be execute all weeks, the days that the user defines.
--monthly: defines a monthly periodicity, so, the action will be execute all months, the days that the user defines.
--yearly: defines a yearly periodicity, so, the action will be execute all year, the days that the user defines.
--hourly: defines a hourly periodicity, so, the action will be execute each ‘x’ hours.
--end: defines when you want that the relative action finishes.
--yearly need the number of the days that the users wants execute the action.
--weekly: days separate with commas between 0 and 6. [0,6]
--monthly: days separate with commas between 1 and 31. [0,31]
--weekly: days separate with commas between 0 and 365. [0,365]
--hourly needs a number with the number of hours. [0,168] (1 week)
--end can be a number or a date:
- Number: defines the number of repetitions.
- Date: defines the date that the user wants to finished the action.
Here is an usage example:
onevm suspend 0 --schedule "09/20" --weekly "1,5" --end 5 VM 0: suspend scheduled at 2018-09-20 00:00:00 +0200 onevm resume 0 --schedule "09/23 14:15" --weekly "2,6" --end 5 VM 0: resume scheduled at 2018-09-23 14:15:00 +0200 $ onevm snapshot-create 0 --schedule "09/23" --hourly 10 --end "12/25" VM 0: resume scheduled at 2018-09-23 14:15:00 +0200 onevm show 0 VIRTUAL MACHINE 0 INFORMATION ID : 0 NAME : one-0 [...] SCHEDULED ACTIONS ID ACTION SCHEDULED REP END DONE MESSAGE 0 suspend 09/23 00:00 Weekly 1,5 After 5 times - 1 resume 09/23 00:00 Weekly 2,6 After 5 times - 2 snapshot-create 09/23 00:00 Each 5 hours On 12/25/18 -
These actions can be deleted or edited using the
onevm update command. The time attributes use Unix time internally.
onevm update 0 SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="suspend", DAYS="1,5", END_TYPE="1", END_VALUE="5", ID="0", REPEAT="0", TIME="1537653600" ] SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="resume", DAYS="2,6", END_TYPE="1", END_VALUE="5", ID="1", REPEAT="0", TIME="1537653600" ] SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="snapshot-create", DAYS="5", END_TYPE="2", END_VALUE="1545692400", ID="2", REPEAT="3", TIME="1537653600" ]
Scheduled actions can be also relative to the Start Time of the VM. That is, it can be set on a VM Template, and apply to the number of seconds after the VM is instantiated.
For instance, a VM Template with the following SCHED_ACTION will spawn VMs that will automatically shutdown after 1 hour of being instantiated.
onetemplate update 0 SCHED_ACTION=[ ACTION="terminate", ID="0", TIME="+3600" ]
This functionality is present graphically in Sunstone in the VM Template creation and update dialog, and in the VM Actions tab:
These are the commands that can be scheduled:
User Defined Data¶
Custom attributes can be added to a VM to store metadata related to this specific VM instance. To add custom attributes simply use the
onevm update command.
onevm show 0 ... VIRTUAL MACHINE TEMPLATE ... VMID="0" onevm update 0 ROOT_GENERATED_PASSWORD="1234" ~ ~ onevm show 0 ... VIRTUAL MACHINE TEMPLATE ... VMID="0" USER TEMPLATE ROOT_GENERATED_PASSWORD="1234"
Manage VM Permissions¶
OpenNebula comes with an advanced ACL rules permission mechanism intended for administrators, but each VM object has also implicit permissions that can be managed by the VM owner. To share a VM instance with other users, to allow them to list and show its information, use the
onevm chmod command:
onevm show 0 ... PERMISSIONS OWNER : um- GROUP : --- OTHER : --- onevm chmod 0 640 onevm show 0 ... PERMISSIONS OWNER : um- GROUP : u-- OTHER : ---
Administrators can also change the VM’s group and owner with the
Life-Cycle Operations for Administrators¶
There are some
onevm commands operations meant for the cloud administrators:
resched: Sets the reschedule flag for the VM. The Scheduler will migrate (or migrate –live, depending on the Scheduler configuration) the VM in the next monitorization cycle to a Host that better matches the requirements and rank restrictions. Read more in the Scheduler documentation.
unresched: Clears the reschedule flag for the VM, canceling the rescheduling operation.
deploy: Starts an existing VM in a specific Host.
migrate --live: The Virtual Machine is transferred between Hosts with no noticeable downtime. This action requires a shared file system storage.
migrate: The VM gets stopped and resumed in the target host. In an infrastructure with multiple system datastores, the VM storage can be also migrated (the datastore id can be specified).
Note: By default, the above operations do not check the target host capacity. You can use the
--enforce option to be sure that the host capacity is not overcommitted.
recover: If the VM is stuck in any other state (or the boot operation does not work), you can recover the VM with the following options. Read the Virtual Machine Failures guide for more information.
--success: simulates the success of the missing driver action
--failure: simulates the failure of the missing driver action
--retry: retries to perform the current driver action. Optionally the
--interactivecan be combined if its a Transfer Manager problem.
--delete: Deletes the VM, moving it to the DONE state immediately
--recreate: Deletes the VM, and moves it to the PENDING state
resched: A VM in the UNKNOWN state can be booted in a different host manually (
migrate) or automatically by the scheduler (
resched). This action must be performed only if the storage is shared, or manually transfered by the administrator. OpenNebula will not perform any action on the storage for this migration.
VNC/Spice Access through Sunstone¶
If the VM supports VNC or Spice and is
running, then the VNC icon on the Virtual Machines view should be visible and clickable:
In LXD instances, VNC access is provided through a command executed via
lxc exec <container> -- <command>. By default this command is
/bin/login and it can be updated by editing /var/tmp/one/etc/vmm/lxd/lxdrc in the LXD node.
The command can also be set for each container, by updating the
GRAPHICS section in the VM template.
It is advised for RPM distros to update the command since it doesn’t work when running it through
lxc exec. For example, a valid command would be
/bin/bash. Keep in mind it grants a root shell inside the container.
The Sunstone documentation contains a section on VNC troubleshooting.
Information for Developers and Integrators¶
- Although the default way to create a VM instance is to register a Template and then instantiate it, VMs can be created directly from a template file using the
- When a VM reaches the
donestate, it disappears from the
onevm listoutput, but the VM is still in the database and can be retrieved with the
- OpenNebula comes with an accounting tool that reports resource usage data.
- The monitoring information, shown with nice graphs in Sunstone, can be retrieved using the XML-RPC methods one.vm.monitoring and one.vmpool.monitoring.